Our Partner for other medical procedures in Brisbane

Brisbane Women’s Health Medical Centre

Website: www.bwhmc.com.au/

Address: Ground Floor, Manor Apartment (Next to GPO) 289 Queen Street, Brisbane

Phone: (07) 3211 8477


Women’s Wellbeing

Website: www.womenswellbeing.com.au/

Address: Suite 1, 631 Logan Road Greenslopes, Queensland 4120

Phone: (07) 3394 4644


Healthy Women Medical Centre

Website: www.healthywomen.com.au/

Address: Suite 1E and 1F, 80 Stamford Road, Indooroopilly QLD 4068

Phone: 07 3720 2622


Alderley Clinic

Website: www.alderleyclinic.com.au/

Address: 9 South Pine Road Alderley QLD 4501

Phone: 07 3356 8322


QL Breast Implants

Website: http://www.brisbane-australia.com/directory/beauty/beauty-salons/ql-breast-implants

Address: 15 Charlotte St, Brisbane, QLD 4000

Phone: 07 4839 7735


Brisbane is a beautiful riverside city in southern Queensland.

Much like the Thames in London, the Brisbane river is mainly brown and muddy looking, but is a focal point and an excellent way of making your way around the city. The River Cat is the best way to get from one end of the city to the other – it’s a fast service and gives you great views of the city from the Storey Bridge to the University of Queensland.

Brisbane has some of the best seafood restaurants in Australia (therefore the World) – try some Moreton Bay Bugs (bay lobsters) or Yabbies and you’ll see what we mean.

Brisbane has an outstanding airport and provides a base to explore further north up to Hervey Bay, Fraser Island, the Great Barrier Reef and Cairns. Please see our accommodation page for a listing of hotel, bed and breakfast and backpacker accommodation within the Brisbane area for planning your next visit.



Bones of the Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg

A great tip to learning which bones are which and where they are located is by focusing on what you already know. Focus on landmarks of the foot. when you can do that, you can orient yourself to the anatomy of the foot. From here you can determine which bone is next to your landmark and so on and so forth.


Lets take a look at the bones of the foot

Lower leg:

    • Navicular:
      Located on the medial aspect of the foot. Situated between the talus and three cuneiforms. Medial to the Cuboid. Its surfaces provide attachment points for the ligaments of the foot.
    • 3 Cuneiforms:
      These three bones are located on the medial aspect of the foot. Medial to the Cuboid. Anterior of the Navicular. Posterior of the 1st 2nd and 3rd metatarsals respectively. Along with the cuboid, the three cuneiforms give rise to the transverse arch.
    • Cuboid:
      Roughly cube shaped, the cuboid is located on the lateral aspect of the foot. Along with the three cuneiforms the cuboid gives shape to the transverse arch. It is found anterior to the Calcaneus and articulates with the lateral cuneiform, and the 4th and 5th metatarsals. The inferior surface (plantar) has a deep groove (peroneal sulcus) for passage of the peroneus longus tendon and has a posterior ridge to which the plantar ligament is attached. most of the surfaces serve as attachment sites for ligaments of the foot.
    • Distal
      The distal portion of the fibula projects lower than the tibia, and forms the lateral malleolus, and serves as an attachment site for ligaments of the foot.Ankle: ( tarsals/tarsus)
      The ankle is one of three regions of the foot.
    • Body:
      The body or shaft of the fibula is long, slender, and has four attachment sites for various muscles and ligaments.
    • Proximal end:
      the proximal end is small and does not form part of the knee. on the lateral side is a pointed eminence known as the styloid process, which serves as an attachment site for the tendon of the biceps femoris and the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament (LCL).
    • Fibula:
      The fibula is the smaller of the two parallel bone of the lower leg. The fibula is in the lateral portion of the lower leg, on the lateral side of the fibula, with which it is connected above and below. The fibula also has a proximal end, a shaft, and a distal end.
    • Distal:
      The distal end of the tibia form the medial malleolus and articulates with the fibula and the bones of the foot and serves as an attachment site for ligaments of the foot and ankle.
    • Body:
      The body of the tibia (the shaft) is triangular in cross section with a prominent anterior crest or border that can be palpated as the shin and is adapted for weight bearing.
    • Proximal:
      The proximal end of the tibia is large, with a pair of condyles and two facets for articulation with the femur and ligaments of the knee. The anterior tibial tuberosity gives attachment to the Patellar ligament, and the posterior surfaces give attachment to the posterior cruciate ligament. The medial condyle has an insertion for the tendon of the semimembranosis and the medial (tibial) collateral ligament (MCL); the lateral condyle articulates with the head of the fibula.
    • Tibia:
      The larger of 2 parallel bones of the lower leg. situated at the medial side of the lower leg; it is the second longest bone of the skeleton (after the femur). The tibia has a proximal end, which articulates with the femur; a body (shaft); and a distal end, which articulates with the bones of the foot.
    • Talus
      The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula. It is found in the upper center of the tarsus and is the second largest of the tarsals. The irregular shaped talus consists of a head, neck, and body:Head:
      The head of the talus articulates with the navicular.
      Neck (shelf):
      the neck of the talus serves as an attachment site for ligaments of the foot.
      Body (trochlea):
      the body of the talus articulates between the Malleoli of the tibia and fibula and rests on the calcaneus, supporting the weight of the leg.
      Largest of the tarsal bones it is located on the posterior aspect of the foot. It supports the Talus and forms the heel. It functions as a strong lever and an attachment site for the Achilles tendon and other ligaments and conveys the body weight to the ground. The anterior surface of the calcaneus articulates with the cuboid.
      Ankle Mortis:
      A collective term for the tibia, fibula and talus complex.
  • Fore foot:
    The fore foot is made of many bones that give rise to the arches, help us maintain balance, and aid in propulsion.
    The remaining regions of the foot are the phalanges and metatarsals which make up the fore foot.

14 Phalanges: The toe bones. 5 distal phalanges which lie below the toe nails. The 2nd through 5th toes have middle phalanges. Finally all the toes have proximal phalanges.

5 Metatarsals: There are 5 metatarsals and they form the sole and instep of the foot.The first lies posterior to the big toe and is the thickest and shortest. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th, run lateral.

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Intrinsic muscles of the foot by Daren Owen, Brisbane

The Intrinsic muscles of the foot are responsible for the flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction of the toes. In addition they help greatly in pronation and supination of the foot.

Layer 1

Intrinsic muscles of the foot
The first layer of intrinsic muscles of the foot
Flexor digitorum brevis

Origin: Medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis
Insertion: Middle phalanx of digits 2-5 vis slips of tendon
Function: Flexes digits 2-5
Abductor hallucis

Origin: Flexor retinaculum, medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity, and plantar aponeurosis
Insertion: Medial side of the base of he proximal phalanx of digit 1 (great toe, hallux)
Function: Abducts digit 1
Abductor digiti minimi

Origin: Primarily from the lateral process of the calcaneal tuberosity and the plantar aponeurosis
Insertion: Lateral side of the proximal phalanx of digit 5 (little toe)
Function: Abducts and flexes digit 5

Layer 2

Second intrinsic muscle layer
The second layer of intrinsic muscles of the foot
Quadratus plantae

Origin: Two slips via the medial and lateral sides of he calcaneus
Insertion: The two portions join and end in a flattened band at the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus
Function: Aids in flexing digits 2-5 by straightening he pull of the flexor digitorum longus.

Origin: Tendons of the flexor digitorum longus
Insertion: Dorsal surface of the proximal phalanges 2-4 and the expansions of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus
Function: Flexes digits 2-5
Intrinsic muscle layer 3
The third layer of intrinsic muscles of the foot

Flexor hallucis brevis

Origin: Plantar surface of the lateral cuneiform (3) and the cuboid bones.
Insertion: Two tendons into the proximal phalanx of great toe
Function: Flexes the great toe
Adductor hallucis (Oblique head)

Origin: Base of metatarsals 2-4
Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of great toe
Function: Adducts great toe
Adductor hallucis (Transverse head)

Origin: Plantar metatarsopharangeal ligaments of the third, fourth, and fifth digit joints.
Insertion: Lateral side of the great toe
Function: Adducts the great toe
Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Origin: Fifth metatarsal
Insertion: Lateral side of the proximal phalanx of the small toe (digit 5)
Function: Flexes the small toe
Opponens digiti minimi

Note: This muscle is made up of the deep fibers of the flexor digit minimi brevis and is occasionally described as a distinct muscle and as such, will be described here.
Origin: Base of the fifth metatarsal bone
Insertion: Lateral part of the distal half of the fifth metatarsal bone
Function: Flexes the little toe and draws the fifth metatarsal medially and down.
Layer 4

Intrinsic muscle layer four
The fourth and final layer of intrinsic muscle of the foot are on the plantar and dorsal surfaces of the foot
Plantar interossei

Origin: Medial sides of the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals
Insertion: Proximal Phalanx of the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals
Function: Adducts the third, fourth, and fifth, digits
Dorsal interossei

Origin: Adjacent sides of the two metatarsal bones between which they are located
Insertion: Bases of the first phalanges of the second, third, and fourth toes, and into the aponeurosis of the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus
Function: The first muscle draws the the second digit medially towards the great toe, the second muscle draws the great toe laterally, the third and fourth muscle draws the third and fourth digits laterally as well.

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About Me

My name is Daren Owen.  I’ve been a Registered Occupational Therapist for 40 years and a Kinesiology Practitioner since 1989.

I have extensive experience working with neurological and structural rehab in hospitals, home health, skilled nursing, schools, Doctors’ offices and private practice. Every year, I spend a ridiculous amount of money and time learning all the good techniques out there (NDT, MFR, Craniosacral, Joint Mobility, Feldenkrais,etc.etc). I can confidently say that TOUCH FOR HEALTH ,THE SYNTHESIS OF CHINESE ACUPUNCTURE MEDICINE WITH MODERN PHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES, will propel your effectiveness as a therapist and boost your confidence to help anyone, anytime, for anything.

You can incorporate TFHK in every technique you know. You can improve yourself or others energetically, structurally, and emotionally above and beyond a regular treatment. For me, TFH is also the most important fundamental FIRST AID KIT ever devised. Imagine pain from headaches, toothaches, insomnia, broken bones, overwhelm, grief, fear, infections, poison ivy, food sensitivities….you get the point. I find something from TFH that can address anything I want to address.

There is muscle testing to access the central nervous system and the meridian energy. Don’t let that scare you. We make it easy and fun.

It is my life joy and pleasure working with both patients and students and I look forward to speaking with you soon. Thank you for stopping by and please drop me a message if you have any questions at TFH Care or Training.