Bones of the Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg

A great tip to learning which bones are which and where they are located is by focusing on what you already know. Focus on landmarks of the foot. when you can do that, you can orient yourself to the anatomy of the foot. From here you can determine which bone is next to your landmark and so on and so forth.


Lets take a look at the bones of the foot

Lower leg:

    • Navicular:
      Located on the medial aspect of the foot. Situated between the talus and three cuneiforms. Medial to the Cuboid. Its surfaces provide attachment points for the ligaments of the foot.
    • 3 Cuneiforms:
      These three bones are located on the medial aspect of the foot. Medial to the Cuboid. Anterior of the Navicular. Posterior of the 1st 2nd and 3rd metatarsals respectively. Along with the cuboid, the three cuneiforms give rise to the transverse arch.
    • Cuboid:
      Roughly cube shaped, the cuboid is located on the lateral aspect of the foot. Along with the three cuneiforms the cuboid gives shape to the transverse arch. It is found anterior to the Calcaneus and articulates with the lateral cuneiform, and the 4th and 5th metatarsals. The inferior surface (plantar) has a deep groove (peroneal sulcus) for passage of the peroneus longus tendon and has a posterior ridge to which the plantar ligament is attached. most of the surfaces serve as attachment sites for ligaments of the foot.
    • Distal
      The distal portion of the fibula projects lower than the tibia, and forms the lateral malleolus, and serves as an attachment site for ligaments of the foot.Ankle: ( tarsals/tarsus)
      The ankle is one of three regions of the foot.
    • Body:
      The body or shaft of the fibula is long, slender, and has four attachment sites for various muscles and ligaments.
    • Proximal end:
      the proximal end is small and does not form part of the knee. on the lateral side is a pointed eminence known as the styloid process, which serves as an attachment site for the tendon of the biceps femoris and the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament (LCL).
    • Fibula:
      The fibula is the smaller of the two parallel bone of the lower leg. The fibula is in the lateral portion of the lower leg, on the lateral side of the fibula, with which it is connected above and below. The fibula also has a proximal end, a shaft, and a distal end.
    • Distal:
      The distal end of the tibia form the medial malleolus and articulates with the fibula and the bones of the foot and serves as an attachment site for ligaments of the foot and ankle.
    • Body:
      The body of the tibia (the shaft) is triangular in cross section with a prominent anterior crest or border that can be palpated as the shin and is adapted for weight bearing.
    • Proximal:
      The proximal end of the tibia is large, with a pair of condyles and two facets for articulation with the femur and ligaments of the knee. The anterior tibial tuberosity gives attachment to the Patellar ligament, and the posterior surfaces give attachment to the posterior cruciate ligament. The medial condyle has an insertion for the tendon of the semimembranosis and the medial (tibial) collateral ligament (MCL); the lateral condyle articulates with the head of the fibula.
    • Tibia:
      The larger of 2 parallel bones of the lower leg. situated at the medial side of the lower leg; it is the second longest bone of the skeleton (after the femur). The tibia has a proximal end, which articulates with the femur; a body (shaft); and a distal end, which articulates with the bones of the foot.
    • Talus
      The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula. It is found in the upper center of the tarsus and is the second largest of the tarsals. The irregular shaped talus consists of a head, neck, and body:Head:
      The head of the talus articulates with the navicular.
      Neck (shelf):
      the neck of the talus serves as an attachment site for ligaments of the foot.
      Body (trochlea):
      the body of the talus articulates between the Malleoli of the tibia and fibula and rests on the calcaneus, supporting the weight of the leg.
      Largest of the tarsal bones it is located on the posterior aspect of the foot. It supports the Talus and forms the heel. It functions as a strong lever and an attachment site for the Achilles tendon and other ligaments and conveys the body weight to the ground. The anterior surface of the calcaneus articulates with the cuboid.
      Ankle Mortis:
      A collective term for the tibia, fibula and talus complex.
  • Fore foot:
    The fore foot is made of many bones that give rise to the arches, help us maintain balance, and aid in propulsion.
    The remaining regions of the foot are the phalanges and metatarsals which make up the fore foot.

14 Phalanges: The toe bones. 5 distal phalanges which lie below the toe nails. The 2nd through 5th toes have middle phalanges. Finally all the toes have proximal phalanges.

5 Metatarsals: There are 5 metatarsals and they form the sole and instep of the foot.The first lies posterior to the big toe and is the thickest and shortest. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th, run lateral.

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